RESOURCES

Community, compassion, harm reduction, rehabilitation

NON FICTION  

The titles below provide an insight into addiction, treatment and harm reduction:

  • Ingrid van Beek; In the Eye of the Needle - diary of Sydney MSIC

  • Matt Noffs; Breaking the Ice: How We Will Get Through Australia's Methamphetamine Crisis.

  • Johan Hari; Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs. 

  • David Nutt; Drugs - Without the Hot Air: Minimising the Harms of Legal and Illegal Drugs.

CORONIAL REPORTS  

The listed Coronial Reports are related to fatal overdoses within the Vic St precinct. 

PEER REVIEWED PAPERS

We'd like to thank the Uniting MSIC (Kings Cross) for allowing us to reproduce their list of 110 peer-reviewed papers showing the effectiveness of medically supervised injecting centres.

Specific information about the Uniting MSIC (Kings Cross) can be found here

Key references

ANDRESEN, M. A. & BOYD, N. 2010. A cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21, 70-76.

ANDRESEN, M. A. & JOZAGHI, E. 2012. The point of diminishing returns: an examination of expanding Vancouver’s Insite. Urban Stud, 49, 3531–3544.

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF HEALTH AND WELFARE. 2007. National Drug Strategy household survey: first results. Drug Statistics Series # 20 PHE 98.

BAYOUMI, A. & ZARIC, G. 2008. The cost-effectiveness of Vancouver’s supervised injection facility. Can Med Assoc J, 179, 1143-1151.

BRAVO, M. J., ROYUELA, L., DE LA FUENTE, L., BRUGAL, M. T., BARRIO, G. & DOMINGO-SALVANY, A. 2009. Use of supervised injection facilities and injection risk behaviours among young drug injectors. Addiction, 104, 6124-9.

BRITISH COLUMBIA CENTRE FOR EXCELLENCE IN HIV/AIDS 2009. Findings from the evaluation of Vancouver's Pilot Medically Supervised Safer Injecting Facility - Insite. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

COMMONWEALTH DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING. 2002. Return on investment in needle and syringe programs in Australia. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing.

DEBECK, K., KERR, T., BIRD, L., ZHANG, R., MARSH, D., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2011. Injection drug use cessation and use of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 113, 172-176.

DEBECK, K., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2008. Police and public health partnerships: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3, 1-5.

DES JARLAIS, D. C., ARASTEH, K. & HAGAN, H. 2008. Evaluating Vancouver’s supervised injection facility: Data and dollars, symbols and ethics. Can Med Assoc J, 179, 1105–1106.

DONNELLY, N. & SNOWBALL, L. 2006. Recent trends in property and drug-related crime in Kings Cross. Crime and Justice Bulletin, 105, 1-7.

DRUCKER, E. 2006. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk. Harm Reduct Journal, 3(24).

FITZGERALD, J., BURGESS, M. & SNOWBALL, L. 2010. Trends in property and illicit drug crime around the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre in Kings Cross: an update. Crime and Justice Statistics, 51, 1-6.

FREEMAN, K., JONES, C. G. A., WEATHERBURN, D. J., RUTTER, S., SPOONER, C. J. & DONNELLY, N. 2005. The impact of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) on crime. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, 173-184.

HEDRICH, D. 2004. European report on drug consumption rooms. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

HEDRICH, D., T., K. & DUBOIS-ARBER, F. 2010. Drug consumption facilites in Europe and beyond. Lisbon: EMCDDA.

HUNT, N. 2006. Indicators of the need for drug consumption rooms in the UK (Paper A). Independent Working Group on Drug Consumption Rooms. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

INDEPENDENT WORKING GROUP ON DRUG CONSUMPTION ROOMS. 2006. The report of the independent working group on drug consumption rooms. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

JAUNCEY, M., TREVAN, A. P. & SULOVSKY, R. P. 2010. Expecting the unexpected: Intravenous insulin at Sydney's medically supervised injecting centre. MJA, 192, 477.

JAUNCEY, M., VAN BEEK, I., AM., S. & MAHER, L. 2011. Bipartisan support for Australia's supervised injecting facility: a decade in the making. MJA, 195, 264.

JOINT SELECT COMMITTEE INTO SAFE INJECTING ROOMS. 1998. Report on the establishment or trial of safe injecting rooms. Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales.

KERR, T., KIMBER, J., DEBECK, K. & WOOD, E. 2007a. The role of safer injection facilities in the response to HIV/AIDS among injection drug users. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 4, 158-164.

KERR, T., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2008. Supervised injecting facilities: time for scale-up? Lancet, 372, 354-355.

KERR, T., OLESON, M., TYNDALL, M. W., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2005a. A Description of a Peer-Run Supervised Injection Site for Injection Drug Users. J Urban Health, 82, 267-275.

KERR, T., SMALL, W., MOORE, D. & WOOD, E. 2007b. A micro-environmental intervention to reduce the harms associated with drug-related overdose: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's safer injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18, 37-45.

KERR, T., STOLTZ, J., TYNDALL, M., LI, K., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2006a. Impact of a medically supervised safer injection facility on community drug use patterns: a before and after study. British Medical Journal, 332, 220-222.

KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & WOOD, E. 2006b. Drug-related overdoses within a medically supervised safer injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 17, 436-441.

KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., LI, K., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2005b. Safer injection facility use and syringe sharing in injection drug users. Lancet, 366, 316-318.

KERR, T., TYNDALL, M. W., ZHANG, R., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & WOOD, E. 2007c. Circumstances of First Injection Among Illicit Drug Users Accessing a Medically Supervised Safer Injection Facility. Am J Public Health, AJPH.2006.086256.

KERR, T. & WOOD, E. 2008. Closing the gap between evidence and action: the need for knowledge translation in the field of drug policy research. International Journal of Drug Policy, 19, 233-234.

KERR, T., WOOD, E., SMALL, D., PALEPU, A. & TYNDALL, M. W. 2003. Potential use of safer injecting facilities among injection drug users in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 169, 759-763.

KIMBER, J. & DOLAN, K. 2007. Shooting gallery operation in the context of establishing a medically supervised injecting center: Sydney, Australia. Journal of Urban Health, 84, 255-266.

KIMBER, J., DOLAN, K., VAN BEEK, I., HEDRICH, D. & ZURHOLD, H. 2003a. Drug consumption facilities: an update since 2000. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22, 227-233.

KIMBER, J., HICKMAN, M., DEGENHARDT, L., COULSON, T. & VAN BEEK, I. 2008a. Estimating the size and dynamics of an injecting drug user population and implications for health service coverage: comparison of indirect prevalence estimation methods. Addiction, 103, 1604-1613.

KIMBER, J., MACDONALD, M., VAN BEEK, I., KALDOR, J., WEATHERBURN, D., LAPSLEY, H. & MATTICK, R. P. 2003b. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: client characteristics and predictors of frequent attendance during the first 12 months of operation. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 639-648.

KIMBER, J., MATTICK, R. P., KALDOR, J., VAN BEEK, I., GILMOUR, S. & RANCE, J. A. 2008b. Process and predictors of drug treatment referral and referral uptake at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27, 602-612.

KPMG. 2010. Further Evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended trial period (2007-2011): Final Report. Sydney KPMG.

MAHER, L. & SALMON, A. M. 2007. Supervised injecting facilities: how much evidence is enough? Drug and Alcohol Review, 26, 351-353.

MARSHALL, B. D., MILLOY, M. J., WOOD, E., MONTANER, J. S. & KERR, T. 2011. Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study. Lancet, 377, 1429-37.

MARSHALL, B. D. L., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., TYNDALL, M. W., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2009. Condom use among injection drug users accessing a supervised injecting facility. Sexually transmitted infections, 85, 121-126.

MATTHEW-SIMMONS, F., LOVE, S. & RITTER, A. 2008. A review of Australian public opinion surveys on illicit drugs. Monograph No. 17, Sydne, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. DPMP Monograph Series.

MCKNIGHT, I., MAAS, B., WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., SMALL, W., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2007. Factors associated with public injecting among users of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 319-325.

MILLOY, M.-J., KERR, T., MATHIAS, R., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S., TYNDALL, M. & WOOD, E. 2008a. Non-fatal overdose among a cohort of active injection drug users recruited from a supervised injection facility. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 34, 499-509.

MILLOY M.J. & E., W. 2009. Emerging role of supervised injecting facilities in human immunodeficiency virus prevention. Addiction, 104, 620-1.

MILLOY, M. J. S., KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2008b. Estimated drug overdose deaths averted by North America's first medically-supervised safer injection facility. PLoS ONE, 3, e3351.

MSIC EVALUATION COMMITTEE. 2003. Final report of the evaluation of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Sydney: Authors.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2005. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Report 1: operations and service delivery (November 2002 to December 2004). Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2006. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Report 2: evaluation of community attitudes towards the Sydney MSIC. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2007a. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Evaluation Report 4: evaluation of service operation and overdose-related events. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2007b. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Evaluation Report 3: evaluation of client referral and health issues. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

PETRAR, S., KERR, T., TYNDALL, M. W., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. & WOOD, E. 2007. Injection drug users' perceptions regarding use of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1088 - 1093.

PINKERTON, S. D. 2010. Is Vancouver Canada's supervised injection facility cost-saving? Addiction, 105, 1429-1436.

PINKERTON, S. D. 2011. How many HIV infections are prevented by Vancouver Canada's supervised injection facility? International Journal of Drug Policy, 22, 179-183.

RICHARDSON, L., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J., TYNDALL, M. & KERR, T. 2008. Employment Among Users of a Medically Supervised Safer Injection Facility. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34, 519-525.

SAHA INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. 2008. Final report: economic evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre at Kings Cross (MSIC).

SALMON AM, T. H.-H., KIMBER J, KALDOR JM, MAHER L. 2007. Five years on: what are the community perceptions of drug-related public amenity following the establishment of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre? . International Journal of Drug Policy 18.

SALMON, A. M., VAN BEEK, I., AMIN, J., KALDOR, J. & MAHER, L. 2010. The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia. Addiction, 105, 676-683.

SEMAAN, S., FLEMING, P., WORRELL, C., STOLP, H., BAACK, B. & MILLER, M. 2011. Potential role of safer injection facilities in reducing HIV and Hepatitis C infections and overdose mortality in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend, 118, 100-110.

SNOWBALL, L., BURGESS, M. & PRICE, B. 2008. Trends in property and illicit drug-related crime in Kings Cross: An update, NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research Sydney.

STOLTZ, J., WOOD, E., SMALL, W., LI, K., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2007a. Changes in injecting practices associated with the use of a medically supervised safer injection facility. Journal of Public Health, 29, 35-39.

STOLTZ, J. M., WOOD, E., MILLER, C., SMALL, W., LI, K., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2007b. Characteristics of young illicit drug injectors who use North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addiction Research & Theory, 15, 63-69.

STRATHDEE, S. A. & POLLINI, R. 2007. A 21st century Lazarus: the role of safer injecting sites in harm reduction and recovery. Addiction, 102, 848-849.

THEIN, H.-H., KIMBER, J., MAHER, L., MACDONALD, M. & KALDOR, J. 2005. Public opinion towards supervised injecting centres and the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16, 275-280.

VAN BEEK, I. 2003. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: a clinical model. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 625-638.

VAN BEEK, I., KIMBER, J., DAKIN, A. & GILMOUR, S. 2004. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: reducing harm associated with heroin overdose. Critical Public Health, 14, 391-406.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., LLOYD-SMITH, E., BUCHNER, C., MARSH, D., MONTANER, J. S. & TYNDALL, M. 2004a. Methodology for evaluating Insite: Canada's first medically supervised safer injection facility for injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal, 1, 9-13.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., MONTANER, J. S., STRATHDEE, S. A., WODAK, A., HANKINS, C. A., SCHECHTER, M. T. & TYNDALL, M. W. 2004b. Rationale for evaluating North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Lancet Infect Dis, 4, 301 - 306.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., SMALL, W., LI, K., MARSH, D. C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & TYNDALL, M. W. 2004c. Changes in public order after the opening of a medically supervised safer injecting facility for illicit injection drug users. Canadian Medical Association Journal 171, 731-734.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2006a. Impact of a medically supervised safer injecting facility on drug dealing and other drug-related crime. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 1, 1-4.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2006b. Summary of findings from the evaluation of a pilot medically supervised safer injecting facility. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175, 1399-1404.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2007. Rate of detoxification service use and its impact among a cohort of supervised injecting facility users. Addiction, 102, 916-919.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., ZHANG, R., STOLTZ, J., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. G. S. & KERR, T. 2006c. Attendance at supervised injecting facilities and use of detoxification services. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 2512 - 2514.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., QUI, Z., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2006d. Service uptake and characteristics of injection drug users utilizing North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 770-773.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., STOLTZ, J., SMALL, W., LLOYD-SMITH, E., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2005. Factors associated with syringe sharing among users of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. American Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1, 50-54

WRIGHT, N. M. J. & TOMPKINS, C. N. E. 2004. Supervised injecting centres. British Medical Journal, 2004, 100-102.

ZOBEL, F. & DUBOIS-ARBER, F. 2004. Short appraisal of the role and usefulness of Drug consumption facilities (DCF) in the reduction of drug-related problems in Switzerland: appraisal produced at the request of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Lausanne:: University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine.

ZURHOLD, H., DEGKWITZ, P., VERTHEIN, U. & HAASEN, C. 2003. Drug consumption rooms in Hamburg, Germany: evaluation of the effects on harm reduction and the reduction of public nuisance. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 663-688.

Main Uniting MSIC reports

JOINT SELECT COMMITTEE INTO SAFE INJECTING ROOMS. 1998. Report on the establishment or trial of safe injecting rooms. Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales.

MSIC EVALUATION COMMITTEE. 2003. Final report of the evaluation of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Sydney: Authors.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2005. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Report 1: operations and service delivery (November 2002 to December 2004). Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2006. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Report 2: evaluation of community attitudes towards the Sydney MSIC. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2007a. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Evaluation Report 4: evaluation of service operation and overdose-related events. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

NATIONAL CENTRE IN HIV EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL RESEARCH. 2007b. Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre Interim Evaluation Report 3: evaluation of client referral and health issues. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales.

SAHA INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. 2008. Final report: economic evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre at Kings Cross (MSIC).

KPMG. 2010. Further Evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended trial period (2007-2011): Final Report. Sydney KPMG.

Main Uniting MSIC papers

JAUNCEY, M., TREVAN, A. P. & SULOVSKY, R. P. 2010. Expecting the unexpected: Intravenous insulin at Sydney's medically supervised injecting centre. MJA, 192, 477.

JAUNCEY, M., VAN BEEK, I., AM., S. & MAHER, L. 2011. Bipartisan support for Australia's supervised injecting facility: a decade in the making. MJA, 195, 264.

KIMBER, J., DOLAN, K., VAN BEEK, I., HEDRICH, D. & ZURHOLD, H. 2003. Drug consumption facilities: an update since 2000. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22, 227-233.

KIMBER, J., HICKMAN, M., DEGENHARDT, L., COULSON, T. & VAN BEEK, I. 2008a. Estimating the size and dynamics of an injecting drug user population and implications for health service coverage: comparison of indirect prevalence estimation methods. Addiction, 103, 1604-1613.

KIMBER, J., MATTICK, R. P., KALDOR, J., VAN BEEK, I., GILMOUR, S. & RANCE, J. A. 2008b. Process and predictors of drug treatment referral and referral uptake at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27, 602-612.

MAHER, L. & SALMON, A. M. 2007. Supervised injecting facilities: how much evidence is enough? Drug and Alcohol Review, 26, 351-353.

SALMON AM, T. H.-H., KIMBER J, KALDOR JM, MAHER L. 2007. Five years on: what are the community perceptions of drug-related public amenity following the establishment of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre? . International Journal of Drug Policy 18.

SALMON, A. M., VAN BEEK, I., AMIN, J., KALDOR, J. & MAHER, L. 2010. The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia. Addiction, 105, 676-683.

THEIN, H.-H., KIMBER, J., MAHER, L., MACDONALD, M. & KALDOR, J. 2005. Public opinion towards supervised injecting centres and the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16, 275-280.

VAN BEEK, I. 2003. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: a clinical model. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 625-638.

VAN BEEK, I., KIMBER, J., DAKIN, A. & GILMOUR, S. 2004. The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre: reducing harm associated with heroin overdose. Critical Public Health, 14, 391-406.

Crime

DEBECK, K., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2008. Police and public health partnerships: Evidence from the evaluationof Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3, 1-5.

DONNELLY, N. & SNOWBALL, L. 2006. Recent trends in property and drug-related crime in Kings Cross. Crime and Justice Bulletin, 105, 1-7.

FITZGERALD, J., BURGESS, M. & SNOWBALL, L. 2010. Trends in property and illicit drug crime around the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre in Kings Cross: an update. Crime and Justice Statistics, 51, 1-6.

FREEMAN, K., JONES, C. G. A., WEATHERBURN, D. J., RUTTER, S., SPOONER, C. J. & DONNELLY, N. 2005. The impact of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) on crime. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, 173-184.

SNOWBALL, L., BURGESS, M. & PRICE, B. 2008. Trends in property and illicit drug-related crime in Kings Cross: An update, NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research Sydney.

WOOD, J.R.T. 1997. Royal commission into the New South Wales Police Service: Final report (Volume II: Reform).

Economic evaluation

ANDRESEN, M. A. & BOYD, N. 2010. A cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21, 70-76.

ANDRESEN, M. A. & JOZAGHI, E. 2012. The point of diminishing returns: an examination of expanding Vancouver’s Insite. Urban Stud, 49, 3531–3544.

BAYOUMI, A. & ZARIC, G. 2008. The cost-effectiveness of Vancouver’s supervised injection facility. Can Med Assoc J, 179, 1143-1151.

COMMONWEALTH DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING. 2002. Return on investment in needle and syringe programs in Australia. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing;.

DES JARLAIS, D. C., ARASTEH, K. & HAGAN, H. 2008. Evaluating Vancouver’s supervised injection facility: Data and dollars, symbols and ethics. Can Med Assoc J, 179, 1105–1106.

PINKERTON, S. D. 2010. Is Vancouver Canada's supervised injection facility cost-saving? Addiction, 105, 1429-1436.

PINKERTON, S. D. 2011. How many HIV infections are prevented by Vancouver Canada's supervised injection facility? International Journal of Drug Policy, 22, 179-183.

RICHARDSON, L., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J., TYNDALL, M. & KERR, T. 2008. Employment Among Users of a Medically Supervised Safer Injection Facility. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34, 519-525.

SAHA INTERNATIONAL LIMITED. 2008. Final report: economic evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre at Kings Cross (MSIC).

Insite

BRITISH COLUMBIA CENTRE FOR EXCELLENCE IN HIV/AIDS 2009. Findings from the evaluation of Vancouver's Pilot Medically Supervised Safer Injecting Facility - Insite. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

DEBECK, K., KERR, T., BIRD, L., ZHANG, R., MARSH, D., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2011. Injection drug use cessation and use of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 113, 172-176.

DEBECK, K., WOOD, E., ZHANG, R., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2008. Police and public health partnerships: Evidence from the evaluationof Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3, 1-5.

DRUCKER, E. 2006. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk. Harm Reduct Journal, 3(24).

KERR, T., KIMBER, J., DEBECK, K. & WOOD, E. 2007. The role of safer injection facilities in the response to HIV/AIDS among injection drug users. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 4, 158-164.

KERR, T., STOLTZ, J., TYNDALL, M., LI, K., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2006. Impact of a medically supervised safer injection facility on community drug use patterns: a before and after study. British Medical Journal, 332, 220-222.

KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., LI, K., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2005. Safer injection facility use and syringe sharing in injection drug users. Lancet, 366, 316-318.

MCKNIGHT, I., MAAS, B., WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., SMALL, W., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2007. Factors associated with public injecting among users of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 319-325.

MARSHALL, B. D., MILLOY, M. J., WOOD, E., MONTANER, J. S. & KERR, T. 2011. Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study. Lancet, 377, 1429-37.

MILLOY, M. J. S., KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2008b. Estimated drug overdose deaths averted by North America's first medically-supervised safer injection facility. PLoS ONE, 3, e3351.

PETRAR, S., KERR, T., TYNDALL, M. W., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. & WOOD, E. 2007. Injection drug users' perceptions regarding use of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1088 - 1093.

STOLTZ, J., WOOD, E., SMALL, W., LI, K., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2007a. Changes in injecting practices associated with the use of a medically supervised safer injection facility. Journal of Public Health, 29, 35-39.

STOLTZ, J. M., WOOD, E., MILLER, C., SMALL, W., LI, K., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2007b. Characteristics of young illicit drug injectors who use North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addiction Research & Theory, 15, 63-69.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., LLOYD-SMITH, E., BUCHNER, C., MARSH, D., MONTANER, J. S. & TYNDALL, M. 2004a. Methodology for evaluating Insite: Canada's first medically supervised safer injection facility for injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal, 1, 9-13.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., MONTANER, J. S., STRATHDEE, S. A., WODAK, A., HANKINS, C. A., SCHECHTER, M. T. & TYNDALL, M. W. 2004b. Rationale for evaluating North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Lancet Infect Dis, 4, 301 - 306.

WOOD, E., KERR, T., SMALL, W., LI, K., MARSH, D. C., MONTANER, J. S. G. & TYNDALL, M. W. 2004c. Changes in public order after the opening of a medically supervised safer injecting facility for illicit injection drug users. Canadian Medical Association Journal 171, 731-734.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2006a. Impact of a medically supervised safer injecting facility on drug dealing and other drug-related crime. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 1, 1-4.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & KERR, T. 2006b. Summary of findings from the evaluation of a pilot medically supervised safer injecting facility. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175, 1399-1404.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2007. Rate of detoxification service use and its impact among a cohort of supervised injecting facility users. Addiction, 102, 916-919.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M., ZHANG, R., STOLTZ, J., LAI, C., MONTANER, J. G. S. & KERR, T. 2006c. Attendance at supervised injecting facilities and use of detoxification services. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 2512 - 2514.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., QUI, Z., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2006d. Service uptake and characteristics of injection drug users utilizing North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 770-773.

WOOD, E., TYNDALL, M. W., STOLTZ, J., SMALL, W., LLOYD-SMITH, E., ZHANG, R., MONTANER, J. S. G. & KERR, T. 2005. Factors associated with syringe sharing among users of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. American Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1, 50-54

International drug consumption rooms

HEDRICH, D. 2004. European report on drug consumption rooms. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

HEDRICH, D., T., K. & DUBOIS-ARBER, F. 2010. Drug consumption facilites in Europe and beyond. Lisbon: EMCDDA.

HUNT, N. 2006. Indicators of the need for drug consumption rooms in the UK (Paper A). Independent Working Group on Drug Consumption Rooms. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

INDEPENDENT WORKING GROUP ON DRUG CONSUMPTION ROOMS. 2006. The report of the independent working group on drug consumption rooms. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

MILLOY, M. J. S., KERR, T., TYNDALL, M., MONTANER, J. & WOOD, E. 2008b. Estimated drug overdose deaths averted by North America's first medically-supervised safer injection facility. PLoS ONE, 3, e3351.

WRIGHT, N. M. J. & TOMPKINS, C. N. E. 2004. Supervised injecting centres. British Medical Journal, 2004, 100-102.

ZOBEL, F. & DUBOIS-ARBER, F. 2004. Short appraisal of the role and usefulness of Drug consumption facilities (DCF) in the reduction of drug-related problems in Switzerland: appraisal produced at the request of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Lausanne:: University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine.

ZURHOLD, H., DEGKWITZ, P., VERTHEIN, U. & HAASEN, C. 2003. Drug consumption rooms in Hamburg, Germany: evaluation of the effects on harm reduction and the reduction of public nuisance. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 663-688.

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